Compiling DFHack

You don’t need to compile DFHack unless you’re developing plugins or working on the core.

For users, modders, and authors of scripts it’s better to download and install the latest release instead.

How to get the code

DFHack doesn’t have any kind of system of code snapshots in place, so you will have to get code from the GitHub repository using Git. How to get Git is described under the instructions for each platform.

To get the latest release code (master branch):

git clone --recursive
cd dfhack

If your version of Git does not support the --recursive flag, you will need to omit it and run git submodule update --init after entering the dfhack directory.

To get the latest development code (develop branch), clone as above and then:

git checkout develop
git submodule update

Generally, you should only need to clone DFHack once.

Important note regarding submodule update after pulling or changing branches:

You must run git submodule update every time you change branches, such as when switching between the master and develop branches or vice versa. You also must run it after pulling any changes to submodules from the DFHack repo. If a submodule only exists on the newer branch, or if a commit you just pulled contains a new submodule, you need to run git submodule update --init. Failure to do this may result in a variety of errors, including fatal: <path> does not exist when using Git, errors when building DFHack, and not a known DF version when starting DF.

More notes:

Contributing to DFHack

If you want to get involved with the development, create an account on GitHub, make a clone there and then use that as your remote repository instead.

We’d love that; join us on IRC (#dfhack channel on freenode) for discussion, and whenever you need help.

(Note: for submodule issues, please see the above instructions first!)

For lots more details on contributing to DFHack, including pull requests, code format, and more, please see Contributing Code.

Build settings

This section describes build configuration options that apply to all platforms. If you don’t have a working build environment set up yet, follow the instructions in the platform-specific sections below first, then come back here.


The Ninja CMake build generator is the prefered build method on Linux and macOS, instead of Unix Makefiles, which is the default. You can select Ninja by passing -G Ninja to CMake. Incremental builds using Unix Makefiles can be much slower than Ninja builds.

cmake .. -G Ninja


Most other CMake settings can be changed by running cmake again, but the generator cannot be changed after cmake has been run without creating a new build folder. Do not forget to specify this option.

CMake versions 3.6 and older, and possibly as recent as 3.9, are known to produce project files with dependency cycles that fail to build (see Issue 1369). Obtaining a recent version of CMake is recommended, either from or through a package manager. See the sections below for more platform-specific directions for installing CMake.

Build type

cmake allows you to pick a build type by changing the CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE variable:


Valid and useful build types include ‘Release’ and ‘RelWithDebInfo’. The default build type is ‘Release’.

Target architecture (32-bit vs. 64-bit)

Set DFHACK_BUILD_ARCH to either 32 or 64 to build a 32-bit or 64-bit version of DFHack (respectively). The default is currently 64, so you will need to specify this explicitly for 32-bit builds. Specifying it is a good idea in any case.




Note that the scripts in the “build” folder on Windows will set the architecture automatically.

Other settings

There are a variety of other settings which you can find in CMakeCache.txt in your build folder or by running ccmake (or another CMake GUI). Most DFHack-specific settings begin with BUILD_ and control which parts of DFHack are built.


On Linux, DFHack acts as a library that shadows parts of the SDL API using LD_PRELOAD.


DFHack is meant to be installed into an existing DF folder, so get one ready.

We assume that any Linux platform will have git available (though it may need to be installed with your package manager.)

To build DFHack you need GCC version 4.8 or later. GCC 4.8 is easiest to work with due to avoiding libstdc++ issues (see below), but any version from 4.8 onwards (including 5.x) will work.

Before you can build anything, you’ll also need cmake. It is advisable to also get ccmake on distributions that split the cmake package into multiple parts.

You will need pthread; most systems should have this already. Note that older CMake versions may have trouble detecting pthread, so if you run into pthread-related errors and pthread is installed, you may need to upgrade CMake, either by downloading it from or through your package manager, if possible.

You also need zlib, libsdl (1.2, not sdl2, like DF), perl, and the XML::LibXML and XML::LibXSLT perl packages (for the code generation parts). You should be able to find them in your distro repositories.

To build Stonesense, you’ll also need OpenGL headers.

Here are some package install commands for various platforms:

  • On Arch linux:

    • For the required Perl modules: perl-xml-libxml and perl-xml-libxslt (or through cpan)
  • On Ubuntu:

    apt-get install gcc cmake ninja-build git zlib1g-dev libsdl1.2-dev libxml-libxml-perl libxml-libxslt-perl
  • On Fedora:

    yum install gcc-c++ cmake ninja-build git zlib-devel SDL-devel perl-core perl-XML-LibXML perl-XML-LibXSLT ruby
  • Debian and derived distros should have similar requirements to Ubuntu.

Multilib dependencies

If you want to compile 32-bit DFHack on 64-bit distributions, you’ll need the multilib development tools and libraries:

  • gcc-multilib and g++-multilib
  • If you have installed a non-default version of GCC - for example, GCC 4.8 on a distribution that defaults to 5.x - you may need to add the version number to the multilib packages.
    • For example, gcc-4.8-multilib and g++-4.8-multilib if installing for GCC 4.8 on a system that uses a later GCC version.
    • This is definitely required on Ubuntu/Debian, check if using a different distribution.
  • zlib1g-dev:i386 (or a similar i386 zlib-dev package)

Note that installing a 32-bit GCC on 64-bit systems (e.g. gcc:i386 on Debian) will typically not work, as it depends on several other 32-bit libraries that conflict with system libraries. Alternatively, you might be able to use lxc to create a virtual 32-bit environment.


Building is fairly straightforward. Enter the build folder (or create an empty folder in the DFHack directory to use instead) and start the build like this:

cd build
cmake .. -G Ninja -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE:string=Release -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=<path to DF>
ninja install  # or ninja -jX install to specify the number of cores (X) to use

<path to DF> should be a path to a copy of Dwarf Fortress, of the appropriate version for the DFHack you are building. This will build the library along with the normal set of plugins and install them into your DF folder.

Alternatively, you can use ccmake instead of cmake:

cd build
ccmake .. -G Ninja
ninja install

This will show a curses-based interface that lets you set all of the extra options. You can also use a cmake-friendly IDE like KDevelop 4 or the cmake-gui program.

Incompatible libstdc++

When compiling dfhack yourself, it builds against your system libstdc++. When Dwarf Fortress runs, it uses a libstdc++ shipped with the binary, which comes from GCC 4.8 and is incompatible with code compiled with newer GCC versions. If you compile DFHack with a GCC version newer than 4.8, you will see an error message such as:

./libs/Dwarf_Fortress: /pathToDF/libs/ version
    `GLIBCXX_3.4.18' not found (required by ./hack/

To fix this you can compile with GCC 4.8 or remove the libstdc++ shipped with DF, which causes DF to use your system libstdc++ instead:

cd /path/to/DF/
rm libs/

Note that distributing binaries compiled with newer GCC versions requires end- users to delete libstdc++ themselves and have a libstdc++ on their system from the same GCC version or newer. For this reason, distributing anything compiled with GCC versions newer than 4.8 is discouraged. In the future we may start bundling a later libstdc++ as part of the DFHack package, so as to enable compilation-for-distribution with a GCC newer than 4.8.

Mac OS X

DFHack functions similarly on OS X and Linux, and the majority of the information above regarding the build process (cmake and ninja) applies here as well.

DFHack can officially be built on OS X with GCC 4.8 or 7. Anything newer than 7 will require you to perform extra steps to get DFHack to run (see Notes for GCC 8+ or OS X 10.10+ users), and your build will likely not be redistributable.

Notes for GCC 8+ or OS X 10.10+ users

If none of these situations apply to you, skip to Dependencies and system set-up.

If you have issues building on OS X 10.10 (Yosemite) or above, try definining the following environment variable:


If you build with a GCC version newer than 7, DFHack will probably crash immediately on startup, or soon after. To fix this, you will need to replace hack/libstdc++.6.dylib with a symlink to the libstdc++.6.dylib included in your version of GCC:

cd <path to df>/hack && mv libstdc++.6.dylib libstdc++.6.dylib.orig &&
ln -s [PATH_TO_LIBSTDC++] .

For example, with GCC 6.3.0, PATH_TO_LIBSTDC++ would be:

/usr/local/Cellar/gcc@6/6.3.0/lib/gcc/6/libstdc++.6.dylib  # for 64-bit DFHack
/usr/local/Cellar/gcc@6/6.3.0/lib/gcc/6/i386/libstdc++.6.dylib  # for 32-bit DFHack

Note: If you build with a version of GCC that requires this, your DFHack build will not be redistributable. (Even if you copy the libstdc++.6.dylib from your GCC version and distribute that too, it will fail on older OS X versions.) For this reason, if you plan on distributing DFHack, it is highly recommended to use GCC 4.8 or 7.

Dependencies and system set-up

  1. Download and unpack a copy of the latest DF

  2. Install Xcode from the Mac App Store

  3. Install the XCode Command Line Tools by running the following command:

    xcode-select --install
  4. Install dependencies

    It is recommended to use Homebrew instead of MacPorts, as it is generally cleaner, quicker, and smarter. For example, installing MacPort’s GCC will install more than twice as many dependencies as Homebrew’s will, and all in both 32-bit and 64-bit variants. Homebrew also doesn’t require constant use of sudo.

    Using Homebrew (recommended):

    brew tap homebrew/versions
    brew install git
    brew install cmake
    brew install ninja
    brew install gcc@7

    Using MacPorts:

    sudo port install gcc7 +universal cmake +universal git-core +universal ninja +universal

    Macports will take some time - maybe hours. At some point it may ask you to install a Java environment; let it do so.

  5. Install Perl dependencies

  • Using system Perl

    • sudo cpan

      If this is the first time you’ve run cpan, you will need to go through the setup process. Just stick with the defaults for everything and you’ll be fine.

      If you are running OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard) or earlier, good luck! You’ll need to open a separate Terminal window and run:

      sudo ln -s /usr/include/libxml2/libxml /usr/include/libxml
    • install XML::LibXML

    • install XML::LibXSLT

  • In a separate, local Perl install

    Rather than using system Perl, you might also want to consider the Perl manager, Perlbrew.

    This manages Perl 5 locally under ~/perl5/, providing an easy way to install Perl and run CPAN against it without sudo. It can maintain multiple Perl installs and being local has the benefit of easy migration and insulation from OS issues and upgrades.

    See for more details.


  • Get the DFHack source as per section How to get the code, above.

  • Set environment variables

    Homebrew (if installed elsewhere, replace /usr/local with $(brew --prefix)):

    export CC=/usr/local/bin/gcc-7
    export CXX=/usr/local/bin/g++-7


    export CC=/opt/local/bin/gcc-mp-7
    export CXX=/opt/local/bin/g++-mp-7

    Change the version numbers appropriately if you installed a different version of GCC.

    If you are confident that you have GCC in your path, you can omit the absolute paths:

    export CC=gcc-7
    export CXX=g++-7


  • Build dfhack:

    mkdir build-osx
    cd build-osx
    cmake .. -G Ninja -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE:string=Release -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=<path to DF>
    ninja install  # or ninja -jX install to specify the number of cores (X) to use

    <path to DF> should be a path to a copy of Dwarf Fortress, of the appropriate version for the DFHack you are building.


On Windows, DFHack replaces the SDL library distributed with DF.


You will need the following:

  • Microsoft Visual C++ 2015 or 2017
  • Git
  • CMake
  • Perl with XML::LibXML and XML::LibXSLT
    • It is recommended to install StrawberryPerl, which includes both.
  • Python (for documentation; optional, except for release builds)

Microsoft Visual Studio 2015

DFHack has to be compiled with the Microsoft Visual C++ 2015 or 2017 toolchain on Windows; other versions won’t work against Dwarf Fortress due to ABI and STL incompatibilities.

You can install Visual Studio 2015 or 2017 Community edition for free, which include all the features needed by DFHack. You can also download just the build tools if you aren’t going to use Visual Studio to edit code.

Additional dependencies: installing with the Chocolatey Package Manager

The remainder of dependencies - Git, CMake, StrawberryPerl, and Python - can be most easily installed using the Chocolatey Package Manger. Chocolatey is a *nix-style package manager for Windows. It’s fast, small (8-20MB on disk) and very capable. Think “apt-get for Windows.”

Chocolatey is a recommended way of installing the required dependencies as it’s quicker, requires less effort, and will install known-good utilities guaranteed to have the correct setup (especially PATH).

To install Chocolatey and the required dependencies:

  • Go to in a web browser

  • At the top of the page it will give you the install command to copy

    • Copy the first one, which starts @powershell ...
    • It won’t be repeated here in case it changes in future Chocolatey releases.
  • Open an elevated (Admin) cmd.exe window

    • On Windows 8 and later this can be easily achieved by:
      • right-clicking on the Start Menu, or pressing Win+X.
      • choosing “Command Prompt (Admin)”
    • On earlier Windows: find cmd.exe in Start Menu, right click and choose Open As Administrator.
  • Paste in the Chocolatey install command and hit enter

  • Close this cmd.exe window and open another Admin cmd.exe in the same way

  • Run the following command:

    choco install git cmake.portable strawberryperl -y
  • Close the Admin cmd.exe window; you’re done!

You can now use all of these utilities from any normal cmd.exe window. You only need Admin/elevated cmd.exe for running choco install commands; for all other purposes, including compiling DFHack, you should use a normal cmd.exe (or, better, an improved terminal like Cmder; details below, under Build.)

NOTE: you can run the above choco install command even if you already have Git, CMake or StrawberryPerl installed. Chocolatey will inform you if any software is already installed and won’t re-install it. In that case, please check the PATHs are correct for that utility as listed in the manual instructions below. Or, better, manually uninstall the version you have already and re-install via Chocolatey, which will ensure the PATH are set up right and will allow Chocolatey to manage that program for you in future.

Additional dependencies: installing manually

If you prefer to install manually rather than using Chocolatey, details and requirements are as below. If you do install manually, please ensure you have all PATHs set up correctly.


Some examples:


You can get the win32 installer version from the official site. It has the usual installer wizard. Make sure you let it add its binary folder to your binary search PATH so the tool can be later run from anywhere.

Perl / Strawberry Perl

For the code generation parts you’ll need Perl 5 with XML::LibXML and XML::LibXSLT. Strawberry Perl is recommended as it includes all of the required packages in a single, easy install.

After install, ensure Perl is in your user’s PATH. This can be edited from Control Panel -> System -> Advanced System Settings -> Environment Variables.

The following three directories must be in PATH, in this order:

  • <path to perl>\c\bin
  • <path to perl>\perl\site\bin
  • <path to perl>\perl\bin

Be sure to close and re-open any existing cmd.exe windows after updating your PATH.

If you already have a different version of Perl (for example the one from Cygwin), you can run into some trouble. Either remove the other Perl install from PATH, or install XML::LibXML and XML::LibXSLT for it using CPAN.


There are several different batch files in the win32 and win64 subfolders in the build folder, along with a script that’s used for picking the DF path. Use the subfolder corresponding to the architecture that you want to build for.

First, run set_df_path.vbs and point the dialog that pops up at a suitable DF installation which is of the appropriate version for the DFHack you are compiling. The result is the creation of the file DF_PATH.txt in the build directory. It contains the full path to the destination directory. You could therefore also create this file manually - or copy in a pre-prepared version - if you prefer.

Next, run one of the scripts with generate prefix. These create the MSVC solution file(s):

  • all will create a solution with everything enabled (and the kitchen sink).
  • gui will pop up the CMake GUI and let you choose what to build. This is probably what you want most of the time. Set the options you are interested in, then hit configure, then generate. More options can appear after the configure step.
  • minimal will create a minimal solution with just the bare necessities - the main library and standard plugins.
  • release will create a solution with everything that should be included in release builds of DFHack. Note that this includes documentation, which requires Python.

Then you can either open the solution with MSVC or use one of the msbuild scripts:

Building/installing from the command line:

In the build directory you will find several .bat files:

  • Scripts with build prefix will only build DFHack.
  • Scripts with install prefix will build DFHack and install it to the previously selected DF path.
  • Scripts with package prefix will build and create a .zip package of DFHack.

Compiling from the command line is generally the quickest and easiest option. However be aware that due to the limitations of cmd.exe - especially in versions of Windows prior to Windows 10 - it can be very hard to see what happens during a build. If you get a failure, you may miss important errors or warnings due to the tiny window size and extremely limited scrollback. For that reason you may prefer to compile in the IDE which will always show all build output.

Alternatively (or additionally), consider installing an improved Windows terminal such as Cmder. Easily installed through Chocolatey with: choco install cmder -y.

Note for Cygwin/msysgit users: It is also possible to compile DFHack from a Bash command line. This has three potential benefits:

  • When you’ve installed Git and are using its Bash, but haven’t added Git to your path:
    • You can load Git’s Bash and as long as it can access Perl and CMake, you can use it for compile without adding Git to your system path.
  • When you’ve installed Cygwin and its SSH server:
    • You can now SSH in to your Windows install and compile from a remote terminal; very useful if your Windows installation is a local VM on a *nix host OS.
  • In general: you can use Bash as your compilation terminal, meaning you have a decent sized window, scrollback, etc.
    • Whether you’re accessing it locally as with Git’s Bash, or remotely through Cygwin’s SSH server, this is far superior to using cmd.exe.

You don’t need to do anything special to compile from Bash. As long as your PATHs are set up correctly, you can run the same generate- and build/install/package- bat files as detailed above.

Building/installing from the Visual Studio IDE:

After running the CMake generate script you will have a new folder called VC2015 or VC2015_32, depending on the architecture you specified. Open the file dfhack.sln inside that folder. If you have multiple versions of Visual Studio installed, make sure you open with Visual Studio 2015.

The first thing you must then do is change the build type. It defaults to Debug, but this cannot be used on Windows. Debug is not binary-compatible with DF. If you try to use a debug build with DF, you’ll only get crashes and for this reason the Windows “debug” scripts actually do RelWithDebInfo builds. After loading the Solution, change the Build Type to either Release or RelWithDebInfo.

Then build the INSTALL target listed under CMakePredefinedTargets.

Building the documentation

DFHack documentation, like the file you are reading now, is created as .rst files, which are in reStructuredText (reST) format. This is a documenation format that has come from the Python community. It is very similar in concept - and in syntax - to Markdown, as found on GitHub and many other places. However it is more advanced than Markdown, with more features available when compiled to HTML, such as automatic tables of contents, cross-linking, special external links (forum, wiki, etc) and more. The documentation is compiled by a Python tool, Sphinx.

The DFHack build process will compile the documentation but this has been disabled by default. You only need to build the docs if you’re changing them, or perhaps if you want a local HTML copy; otherwise, read them easily online at ReadTheDoc’s DFHack hosted documentation.

(Note that even if you do want a local copy, it is certainly not necesesary to compile the documentation in order to read it. Like Markdown, reST documents are designed to be just as readable in a plain-text editor as they are in HTML format. The main thing you lose in plain text format is hyperlinking.)

Enabling documentation building

First, make sure you have followed all the necessary steps for your platform as outlined in the rest of this document.

To compile documentation with DFHack, add the following flag to your cmake command:


For example:

cmake .. -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE:string=Release -DBUILD_DOCS:bool=ON -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=<path to DF>

Alternatively you can use the CMake GUI which allows options to be changed easily.

On Windows you should either use generate-msvc-gui.bat and set the option through the GUI, or else if you want to use an alternate file, such as generate-msvc-all.bat, you will need to edit it to add the flag. Or you could just run cmake on the command line like in other platforms.

Required dependencies

In order to build the documentation, you must have Python with Sphinx version 1.3.1 or later. Both Python 2.x and 3.x are supported.

When installing Sphinx from OS package managers, be aware that there is another program called Sphinx, completely unrelated to documentation management. Be sure you are installing the right Sphinx; it may be called python-sphinx, for example. To avoid doubt, pip can be used instead as detailed below.


Most Linux distributions will include Python as standard.

Check your package manager to see if Sphinx 1.3.1 or later is available, but at the time of writing Ubuntu for example only has 1.2.x.

You can instead install Sphinx with the pip package manager. This may need to be installed from your OS package manager; this is the case on Ubuntu. On Ubuntu/Debian, use the following to first install pip:

sudo apt-get install python-pip

Once pip is available, you can then install the Python Sphinx module with:

pip install sphinx

If you run this as a normal user it will install a local copy for your user only. Run it with sudo if you want a system-wide install. Either is fine for DFHack, however if installing locally do check that sphinx-build is in your path. It may be installed in a directory such as ~/.local/bin/, so after pip install, find sphinx-build and ensure its directory is in your local $PATH.

Mac OS X

OS X has Python 2.7 installed by default, but it does not have the pip package manager.

You can install Homebrew’s Python 3, which includes pip, and then install the latest Sphinx using pip:

brew install python3
pip3 install sphinx

Alternatively, you can simply install Sphinx 1.3.x directly from Homebrew:

brew install sphinx-doc

This will install Sphinx for OS X’s system Python 2.7, without needing pip.

Either method works; if you plan to use Python for other purposes, it might best to install Homebrew’s Python 3 so that you have the latest Python as well as pip. If not, just installing sphinx-doc for OS X’s system Python 2.7 is fine.


Use the Chocolatey package manager to install Python and pip, then use pip to install Sphinx.

Run the following commands from an elevated (Admin) cmd.exe, after installing Chocolatey as outlined in the Windows section:

choco install python pip -y

Then close that Admin cmd.exe, re-open another Admin cmd.exe, and run:

pip install sphinx

Building the changelogs

If you have Python installed, but do not want to build all of the documentation, you can build the changelogs with the docs/ script.

All changes should be listed in changelog.txt. A description of this file’s format follows:

Entries in docs/NEWS.rst and docs/NEWS-dev.rst are generated from docs/changelog.txt. NEWS.rst groups entries by stable releases, and NEWS-dev.rst groups them by all releases (stable and development). For example, an entry listed under “0.44.05-alpha1” in changelog.txt will be listed under that in NEWS-dev.rst as well, but under “0.44.05-r1” in NEWS.rst (assuming that is the closest stable release after 0.44.05-alpha1). An entry listed under a stable release in changelog.txt will be listed under that release in both NEWS.rst and NEWS-dev.rst.

changelog.txt uses a syntax similar to RST, with a few special sequences:

  • === indicates the start of a comment
  • # indicates the start of a release name (do not include “DFHack”)
  • ## indicates the start of a section name (this must be listed in
  • - indicates the start of a changelog entry. Note: an entry currently must be only one line.
  • : (colon followed by space) separates the name of a feature from a description of a change to that feature.
    Changes made to the same feature are grouped if they end up in the same section.
  • :\ (colon, backslash, space) avoids the above behavior
  • - @ (the space is optional) indicates the start of an entry that should only be displayed in NEWS-dev.rst.
    Use this sparingly, e.g. for immediate fixes to one development build in another development build that are not of interest to users of stable builds only.
  • Three [ characters indicate the start of a block (possibly a comment) that spans multiple lines. Three ] characters indicate the end of such a block.
  • ! immediately before a phrase set up to be replaced (see stops that occurrence from being replaced.

Misc. Notes

Note on building DFHack offline

As of 0.43.05, DFHack downloads several files during the build process, depending on your target OS and architecture. If your build machine’s internet connection is unreliable, or nonexistent, you can download these files in advance.

First, you must locate the files you will need. These can be found in the dfhack-bin repo. Look for the most recent version number before or equal to the DF version which you are building for. For example, suppose “0.43.05” and “0.43.07” are listed. You should choose “0.43.05” if you are building for 0.43.05 or 0.43.06, and “0.43.07” if you are building for 0.43.07 or 0.43.08.

Then, download all of the files you need, and save them to <path to DFHack clone>/CMake/downloads/<any filename>. The destination filename you choose does not matter, as long as the files end up in the CMake/downloads folder. You need to download all of the files for the architecture(s) you are building for. For example, if you are building for 32-bit Linux and 64-bit Windows, download all files starting with linux32 and win64. GitHub should sort files alphabetically, so all the files you need should be next to each other.


  • Any files containing “allegro” in their filename are only necessary for building Stonesense. If you are not building Stonesense, you don’t have to download these, as they are larger than any other listed files.

It is recommended that you create a build folder and run CMake to verify that you have downloaded everything at this point, assuming your download machine has CMake installed. This involves running a “generate” batch script on Windows, or a command starting with cmake .. -G Ninja on Linux and OS X, following the instructions in the sections above. CMake should automatically locate files that you placed in CMake/downloads, and use them instead of attempting to download them.

Note on using very old git versions with pre-0.43.03 DFHack versions

If you are using git 1.8.0 or older, and cloned DFHack before commit 85a920d (around DFHack v0.43.03-alpha1), you may run into fatal git errors when updating submodules after switching branches. This is due to those versions of git being unable to handle our change from “scripts/3rdparty/name” submodules to a single “scripts” submodule. This may be fixable by renaming .git/modules/scripts to something else and re-running git submodule update --init on the branch with the single scripts submodule (and running it again when switching back to the one with multiple submodules, if necessary), but it is usually much simpler to upgrade your git version.